120gr/hr DE CARBOHIDRATOS EN EL TRAIL RUNNING

Los carbohidratos son el combustible principal a la hora de practicar el Trail Running o cualquier otro deporte, hemos hablado muy poco sobre su relación dentro del entrenamiento o competencia. Aunque en el artículo de alimentación de Kilian Jornet hablamos sobre la fisiología y nutrición de su temporada.

Conocemos muy bien que el daño muscular inducido por el ejercicio (EIMED) y la carga interna del ejercicio aumentan después de competir en eventos de ultraresistencia, como los maratones de montaña (éste artículo se recomienda para preparar un maratón de montaña). La ingesta adecuada de carbohidratos (CHO) durante el ejercicio optimiza el rendimiento deportivo y podría limitar ese daño muscular, reducir la carga interna del ejercicio y, por lo tanto, mejorar la recuperación.

Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar y comparar los efectos de la ingesta alta de CHO (120 g/h) en términos de recomendación de ingesta de CHO (90 g/h) y la ingesta regular de CHO realizada por atletas de ultraresistencia (60 g/h). ) durante un maratón de montaña, sobre carga de ejercicio y marcadores EIMD (creatina quinasa (CK), lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH), transaminasa glutámico oxaloacética (GOT), urea y creatinina).

El deporte de montaña y daño muscular

Daño muscular en el deporte de montaña
Daño muscular en el deporte de montaña

Los eventos de ultraresistencia, como los maratones de montaña (42 195 km), involucran potencialmente varias respuestas fisiológicas y fisiopatológicas que aumentan la carga de ejercicio interno y la fatiga. Teniendo en cuenta la variabilidad del terreno, las características y la falta de similitud en cuanto a las demandas físicas al referirse a diferentes eventos de montaña, la distancia por sí sola no parece ser un parámetro confiable para cuantificar las demandas fisiológicas y metabólicas.

Los esfuerzos de alta intensidad y, en particular, las contracciones excéntricas, conduce a la aparición de una respuesta inflamatoria que se asocia, entre otros factores, con el deterioro de la función muscular, el dolor muscular de aparición tardía (DOMS) y el aumento de las proteínas del metabolismo muscular en el torrente sanguíneo (estudio).

Los aumentos significativos en los niveles sanguíneos de creatina quinasa, medidor del daño muscular, (CK) han sido bien documentados en atletas después de ejercicios de resistencia y excéntricos como maratones y ultramaratones (estudio1, estudio2).

Oxidación de Carbohidratos

Eliud Kipchoge preparando sus botellas con carbohidratos para el maratón de Berlín
Eliud Kipchoge preparando sus botellas con carbohidratos para el maratón de Berlín

La ingesta regular y oxidación (o utilización) de CHO por parte de los atletas durante los eventos de ultraresistencia es de aproximadamente 60 g/h (estudio). Mientras que con un entrenamiento nutricional e intestinal previo puede llegar hasta 90 g CHO/h (estudio).

Otro estudio mostró que los atletas que consumieron 120 g/h estuvieron entre los más rápidos durante 2 eventos de ultraresistencia, lo que indica un retraso en la aparición de la fatiga.

Hace unos años las recomendaciones de ingesta de hidratos de carbono eran de hasta 60 g/h, ahora hablamos de 90 o incluso 120 g/h

Protocolo y participantes

Atleta en Lavaredo Ultra Trail, Italia
Atleta en Lavaredo Ultra Trail, Italia

Treinta y un atletas masculinos de élite (2 campeones mundiales) con al menos 5 años de experiencia en ultratrail fueron reclutados para este estudio. 

Aunque no se proporcionaron pautas generales ni específicas sobre el entrenamiento intestinal en este estudio, todos los participantes realizaron un entrenamiento intestinal personalizado (entrenamiento del tracto intestinal para aumentar la tolerancia y la capacidad de absorción) según lo prescrito por sus nutricionistas.

Durante este entrenamiento intestinal, los atletas debían haber utilizado ingestas de CHO de hasta 90 g/h al menos 2 días a la semana en las 4 semanas previas a la maratón de montaña.

La muestra final incluida en este estudio estuvo compuesta por 20 atletas (hubo retiros por lesión o problemas gastrointestinales), incluidos 2 campeones mundiales (6 atletas para LOW 60gr/hr, 7 atletas para CON 90gr/hr y 7 atletas para EXP 120gr/hr).

Estructuración de los atletas

Corredores en Lavaredo Ultra Trail 2021
Corredores en Lavaredo Ultra Trail 2021

 Los 26 corredores sanos fueron agrupados de la siguiente manera:

  • (I) grupo bajo que consumió 60 g/h de CHO (LOW; n = 8 ; edad: 37,8 ± 9,4 años; talla: 175,6 ± 10,3 cm y masa corporal: 71,8 ± 10,3 kg),
  • (II) grupo control que consumió 90 g/h de CHO (CON; n = 9; edad: 37,2 ± 5,4 años ; talla: 172,3 ± 7,0 cm y masa corporal: 66,6 ± 10,8 kg) y
  • (III) grupo experimental que consumió 120 g/h de CHO (EXP; n=9; edad: 38,0 ± 6,8 años; altura: 174,2 ± 3,5 cm y masa corporal: 67,4 ± 11,1 kg). 

Los tres grupos tomaron CHO durante el maratón de montaña a través de los mismos geles de 30 g de maltodextrina (glucosa) y fructosa (proporción 2:1) en varios sabores (endulzados artificialmente).

Momento de la ingesta de carbohidratos durante la carrera para cada grupo experimental.
Momento de la ingesta de carbohidratos durante la carrera para cada grupo experimental.

Los corredores no tomaron ningún otro alimento aparte de estos geles, y los atletas solo bebieron agua ad libitum (hasta saciarse) durante el maratón de montaña.

La maratón de montaña

El keniata  Ben Kimtai en la pasada Gorbeia Suzien
El keniata Ben Kimtai en la pasada Gorbeia Suzien

Los 42,195 km se disputó en Oiartzun (Guipúzcoa-España) con una temperatura de 10 °C, una humedad del 60% y una velocidad del viento de 10 km/h.

No hubo grandes cambios en las condiciones climáticas durante el desarrollo de la carrera, comenzando la carrera a las 9:00 am, y consistiendo en una entrada y una salida a un circuito que tuvo que ser completado tres veces. El desnivel acumulado total de la prueba fue de 3980,80 m (1990,40 m positivos y 1990,40 m negativos).

Perfil de la carrera de maratón de trail.
Perfil de la carrera de maratón de trail.

La altura máxima alcanzada durante la carrera fue de 638,20 m y la altura mínima de 3,80 m. El tiempo total de maratón de montaña se obtuvo mediante cronómetros oficiales.

Resultados

Atleta élite de Kenia Cematot realizando una carga de hidratos de carbono
Atleta élite de Kenia Cematot realizando una carga de hidratos de carbono

Los investigadores midieron la carga de ejercicio preguntando sobre las calificaciones del esfuerzo percibido y varios marcadores de daño muscular (creatina quinasa (CK), lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH), transaminasa glutámico oxaloacética (GOT), urea y creatinina). Los marcadores EIMD o daño muscular inducido por el ejercicio se analizaron antes de la carrera y 24 h después y se encontró que el grupo de 120 g/h tenía valores significativamente más bajos de CK, LDH y GOT 24 h después de la carrera de maratón de montaña en comparación con 60 o 90 g/h (estudio).

La carga interna y el daño muscular a las 24h de la carrera fueron menores en el grupo que ingirió 120 g/h de hidratos de carbono

 

Porcentaje de cambios en el marcador EIMD durante el estudio en el grupo bajo en carbohidratos (LOW), grupo control (CON) y grupo experimental (EXP).
Porcentaje de cambios en el marcador EIMD durante el estudio en el grupo bajo en carbohidratos (LOW), grupo control (CON) y grupo experimental (EXP).

 

Las calificaciones de esfuerzo percibido durante el evento permitieron a los investigadores calcular una carga interna y se concluyó que la carga de ejercicio interno durante el maratón de montaña fue significativamente menor con 120 g/h en comparación con 60 y 90 g/h también.

Conclusiones

La ingesta alta de CHO (120 g/h) durante un maratón de montaña podría limitar la EIMD observada por CK, LDH y GOT y la carga interna de ejercicio en comparación con la ingesta de CHO de 60 y 90 g/h.
Los efectos de esta mayor ingesta de CHO (120 g/h) en comparación con la cantidad recomendada (90 g/h) posiblemente podrían conducir a una estrategia nueva y más adecuada para limitar la EIMD en ejercicios de resistencia altamente fisiológicos y metabólicamente exigentes, como maratones de montaña y eventos de ultraresistencia.

 

Los atletas de resistencia pueden entrenar el intestino para mejorar la ingesta, digestión, absorción y utilización de CHO durante el ejercicio.

Una mayor ingesta de CHO durante el ejercicio podría ser una estrategia de mejora del rendimiento, pero también una herramienta para optimizar la recuperación a largo plazo y ayudar en las competiciones de etapas.

 

Artículos relacionados:

NUEVO COMBUSTIBLE PARA ATLETAS

GUÍA DE SUPLEMENTOS DEPORTIVOS

10 ALIMENTOS QUE DETIENEN TU PROGRESO

ESTRATEGIA DE NUTRICIÓN EN TRAIL RUNNING

Alimentación de Kilian Jornet para su Temporada 2022

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