DIFERENCIAS ENTRE ATLETAS DE CALLE Y TRAIL

Seamos francos, todos sabemos que las diferencias entre atletas de calle y Trail Running son muy evidentes, ya que el primero se dedica a entrenar para un maratón, o al menos intentarlo a futuro. Mientras que el segundo quiere conquistar en algún momento de su carrera deportiva un ultra maratón entrenando por terreno natural con desniveles de diferentes porcentajes.

Un laboratorio enfrentó cara a cara a atletas de élite de ambos deportes para descubrir si la potencia y eficiencia dependen de la superficie por donde entrenan.

A priori está claro que las demandas fisiológicas son diferentes, en el trail tienes que adaptar al cuerpo  constantemente al terreno irregular por donde transite.

Para un maratón el rendimiento se debe a cuatro factores fisiológicos: el consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2max), la cinética del VO2, el porcentaje del VO2max que somos capaces de utilizar (%VO2max) y la economía de carrera (EC) (Jones, 2016; Jones y Carter, 2000).

Comparación de economía, biomecánica, fuerza y ​​potencia

Un estudio de febrero de 2022 realizado por investigadores franceses de la Universidad de Lyon, publicado en el Journal of Strength and Conditioning Researchtuvo como propósito determinar las diferencias entre corredores de élite de ruta (ROAD) y trail (TRAIL) en términos de perfil de fuerza-velocidad (FVP), carrera biomecánica, fuerza isométrica máxima de miembros inferiores, economía de carrera y entrenamiento.

Diecisiete atletas de élite masculinos (10 de TRAIL RUNNING y 7 de RUTA) participaron en este estudio. El perfil de fuerza-velocidad se midió utilizando una prueba de 2 sprints en un cicloergómetro.

Para evaluar la potencia, utilizaron sprints máximos de 8 segundos en una bicicleta estacionaria y calcularon la curva de fuerza-velocidad resultante. Efectivamente, los corredores de Trail Running podrían generar un 23% más de fuerza y un 16% más de potencia que los corredores de ruta.

Dispositivo electrónico con múltiples funciones en el que se visualiza: Revoluciones de pedaleo. Frecuencia cardiaca.
Cicloergómetro es un Dispositivo electrónico con múltiples funciones en el que se visualiza: Revoluciones de pedaleo. Frecuencia cardiaca.

La fuerza se evaluó con un dinamómetro que mide el torque voluntario máximo isométrico de los extensores y flexores de la rodilla.

Las pruebas de fuerza de cuádriceps y los isquiotibiales no mostraron diferencias entre los grupos. Pero la fuerza no es lo mismo que el poder, que también depende de qué tan rápido puedas producir fuerza.

Mide la fuerza de los grupos musculares de la
Dinamómetro de pierna: Mide la fuerza de los grupos musculares de la pierna.

Economía de carrera

Economía de carrera en deportistas de calle y Trail Running
Economía de carrera en deportistas de calle y Trail Running

Es una medida de cuánta energía se necesita para mantener un ritmo determinado. Correr en la ruta implica un paso suave y metronómico, sin movimiento desperdiciado. Pero investigaciones previas (dejo un estudio) han sugerido que la eficiencia con la que corres en una ruta llana o en una caminadora no necesariamente te dice qué tan eficiente serás en senderos irregulares y montañosos.

En dicho estudio se midieron los parámetros biomecánicos (cinemática de carrera y rigidez), y economía de carrera. Se calculó a los 10 y 14 km/h al 0% de pendiente y a los 10 km/h al 10% de pendiente en cinta rodante. Los atletas también informaron sobre la duración de su entrenamiento durante el año anterior.

Los corredores de ruta en el nuevo estudio quemaron aproximadamente un 6% menos de energía que los corredores de senderos a un ritmo de poco menos de 7:00 millas/hr en la cinta de correr plana.

Con una inclinación cuesta arriba del 10 por ciento, los dos grupos promediaron aproximadamente la misma economía de carrera. Dado que los corredores de Trail Running fueron menos eficientes en terreno plano, esto sugiere que son mejores, al menos en términos relativos, en las cuestas.

El 10% es una inclinación modesta para los corredores de Trail y sobre todo de élite, por lo que sabemos que la ventaja relativa se ampliaría en pendientes más pronunciadas.

Análisis biomecánicos

DIFERENCIAS ENTRE CORREDORES DE CALLE Y TRAIL RUNNING
DIFERENCIAS ENTRE CORREDORES DE CALLE Y TRAIL RUNNING

También hicieron algunos análisis biomecánicos: tiempo de contacto con el suelo, tiempo de vuelo, cadencia, rigidez de las piernas, etc. Los resultados son fáciles de resumir: no hay diferencias entre los dos grupos.

En general, las diferencias en potencia y economía de carrera respaldan la idea de que tanto los corredores de montaña como los de ruta están adaptados a sus especialidades particulares.

Sin embargo, los autores también están dispuestos a considerar una hipótesis alternativa: tal vez el trail running, como un deporte relativamente joven con un premio en dinero considerablemente menor, simplemente aún no ha atraído un nivel tan alto de competencia.

Vale la pena señalar que el autor principal del estudio, Guillaume Millet, tiene una historia impresionante como corredor de ultratrail de montaña, incluido un podio en quizás el más difícil de todos, el Tor des Géants. No está tratando de despreciar a los corredores de Trail Running.

Entrenamiento en ambos grupos

Entrenamiento inicial para Trail Running
Entrenamiento inicial para Trail Running

Los corredores de ruta informaron que entrenaban un total de 79,0 horas por mes, en promedio, incluyendo series fraccionadas, entrenamiento cruzado y entrenamiento de resistencia.

Los corredores de Trail Running promediaron solo 43,6 horas. Los siete corredores de ruta del estudio (todos hombres, al igual que los corredores de trail o montaña, por razones que no se explican) se describen como de nivel nacional, con un mejor promedio de 29:17 en los 10 km.

Los diez corredores de Trail Running, por otro lado, están clasificados entre los mejores del mundo, ya que acaban de ganar el título por equipos en el Campeonato Mundial de Trail 2019 y quedaron cuartos en el Campeonato Mundial de Carreras de Montaña de 2019.

Los corredores de montaña también corren distancias más largas de hasta 14 horas, mientras que los corredores de ruta alcanzan su máximo en el maratón, por lo que es sorprendente que los corredores de senderos entrenen menos y rindan tan bien.

Factores de rendimiento en una ultramaratón de montaña

Un estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar los factores de rendimiento de ultramaratón de montaña (MUM) en un gran grupo de corredores de montaña de resistencia. La velocidad aeróbica máxima (MAS) se evaluó una semana antes del MUM.

El nivel y el costo energético graduado (10 %) de la carrera, la rigidez, la fuerza de los extensores de la rodilla (KE f ) y la altura del salto en un salto con contramovimiento (CMJ) se midieron en 24 ultracorredores masculinos antes (pre) e inmediatamente después (post).

Se concluyó que para rendir en un Ultramaratón de Montaña, el entrenamiento debe tener en cuenta la fuerza muscular de los extensores de rodilla, la velocidad aeróbica máxima y entrenamientos interválicos, hablamos de polarizar un ciclo de entreno para que el atleta rinda mejor.

Conclusiones

Lo verdaderamente interesante es que los corredores de calle o maratonistas realizan muchas más horas de entrenamiento respecto a los profesionales de Trail Running. Uno entrena para un maratón de 42km195m, mientras que el otro grupo entrena para distancias iguales o mayores.

Un maratón hoy en día es un deporte del que se puede vivir, en cambio del Trail Running son muy pocos lo que viven de él. Podría ser que la cantidad hace a la calidad, allí se encuentra una mejor genética y pasan por un tamiz más exhaustivo.

Kenia es un lugar que crea atletas que todavía no han sido superados, de allí se copian entrenamientos a otros atletas del mundo, intentan copiar su estilo de vida para ser más profesionales. En el deporte de montaña eso no existe, así como también no han llegado Keniatas a correr Trail Running aún.

Eliud Kipchoge ha dicho que eventualmente quiere pasar a ultras. Por lo pronto lo veremos participar en el maratón más famoso del mundo, Boston.

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