CONSEJOS SOBRE ENTRENAR CON CALOR

Realizar un ejercicio físico prolongado como el Trail o Ultra Trail Running en ambientes calurosos (~40°C) podría afectar significativamente al corredor, como vimos en el artículo de Hipertermia, por lo que preparamos algunos consejos, basados en ciencia, sobre entrenar con calor en eventos deportivos de resistencia.

Recordemos que cuando hacemos ejercicio en entornos calurosos, nuestro sistema de enfriamiento tiene que esforzarse más. El cuerpo envía más sangre a la piel, apartándola de los músculos. Esto aumenta la frecuencia cardíaca. Podemos sudar mucho más, perdiendo así líquidos del cuerpo. Si el tiempo está húmedo, el sudor permanece en la piel, lo cual hace que al cuerpo le resulte difícil enfriarse.

Así que vamos proporcionar recomendaciones actualizadas para optimizar el rendimiento durante las actividades deportivas realizadas en condiciones ambientales cálidas. Las condiciones ambientales en los estudios seleccionados variaron de ~ 30 a ~ 50 °C, con una humedad relativa que osciló entre el 20 y el 80 %.

Aclimatación al calor

Consejos para aclimatar al calor
Consejos para aclimatar al calor

Todas las pautas que vamos a exponer intentar proteger al atleta o corredor que desean mantener y mejorar el rendimiento en eventos deportivos con calor, que sabemos hay muchos en nuestro país.

La aclimatación al calor mejora el confort térmico y el rendimiento del ejercicio aeróbico tanto submáximo como máximo en condiciones cálidas (Nielsen et al., 1993 ; Lorenzo et al., 2010). Los beneficios de la aclimatación al calor se logran mediante el aumento de la sudoración y las respuestas del flujo sanguíneo de la piel, la expansión del volumen plasmático y, por lo tanto, una mejor estabilidad cardiovascular (es decir, una mejor capacidad para mantener la presión arterial y el gasto cardíaco) y el equilibrio de líquidos y electrolitos ( Périard et al., 2015 ).

Vamos a ver algunos protocolos de aclimatación al calor y así, optimizar los beneficios en los atletas.

1. Duración

Practicar MTB requiere una adaptación al calor
Practicar MTB requiere una adaptación al calor

La mayoría de las adaptaciones (es decir, disminuciones en la frecuencia cardíaca, la temperatura de la piel y el recto, aumentos en la tasa de sudoración y la capacidad de trabajo) se desarrollan dentro de la primera semana de aclimatación al calor y más lentamente en las siguientes 2 semanas (Robinson et al.,  Flouris et al., 2014 ).

Se notaron diferencias entre el grupo aclimatado al calor (izquierda) y el grupo de control (derecha), con el grupo aclimatado al calor mejorando en todos los ámbitos (prueba de VO2max, mejora del umbral de lactato, gasto cardíaco máximo y rendimiento de la prueba contrarreloj) de su pruebas de pre-aclimatación (8). Esta investigación utilizó ciclistas entrenados en resistencia. HR = humedad relativa.
Se notaron diferencias entre el grupo aclimatado al calor (izquierda) y el grupo de control (derecha), con el grupo aclimatado al calor mejorando en todos los ámbitos (prueba de VO2max, mejora del umbral de lactato, gasto cardíaco máximo y rendimiento de la prueba contrarreloj) de su pruebas de pre-aclimatación (estudio). Esta investigación utilizó ciclistas entrenados en resistencia. HR = humedad relativa.

Las adaptaciones se desarrollan más rápidamente en atletas altamente entrenados (hasta la mitad del tiempo) en comparación con individuos no entrenados. Pero para completar la aclimatación cardiovasculares y sudomotoras, y optimizar el rendimiento aeróbico, se necesitan al menos 2 semanas (Racinais et al., 2015 ). Como vemos en deportistas del ciclismo, que fácilmente podemos extrapolar al deporte del corredor de resistencia.

2. Protocolo de entrenamiento 

La física de la termorregulación y la transferencia de calor. Imagen cortesía de https://www.earthslab.com/physiology/thermoregulation-human-body/
La física de la termorregulación y la transferencia de calor. Imagen cortesía de https://www.earthslab.com/physiology/thermoregulation-human-body/

La fisiología indica que un aumento de la temperatura corporal (central y cutánea) para inducir una sudoración profusa y aumentar el flujo sanguíneo de la piel se logra con un buen protocolo de entrenamiento.

Un estudio demostró que el entrenamiento repetido con ejercicios de calor durante 100 min era eficaz para inducir tales respuestas (Lind & Bass, 1963 ). Según se informa, el ejercicio diario hasta el agotamiento al 60 % del VO 2 máx. en condiciones ambientales calurosas (40 °C, 10 % de HR) durante 9 a 12 días consecutivos aumenta la capacidad de ejercicio de 48 a 80 min (Nielsen et al., 1993 ).

La magnitud de la adaptación depende de la intensidad, duración, frecuencia y número de exposiciones al calor durante el entrenamiento. Por ejemplo, (Houmard et al.  1990 ) reportaron adaptaciones fisiológicas similares, atletas entrenados, después de ejercicios de corta duración (30-35 min, 75% VO 2max ) de intensidad moderada y de larga duración (60 min, 50% VO 2max ) de baja intensidad.

A medida que se van adaptando al calor se pueden prescribir estímulos de entrenamiento más bajos, menos intensidad. Para esto se puede utilizar la frecuencia cardíaca para medir esas intensidad absoluta  y mantener una intensidad relativa similar durante todo el proceso de aclimatación. Por último, los atletas pueden adaptarse entrenando al aire libre en el calor (es decir, aclimatación) mediante ejercicio a su propio ritmo o manteniendo su régimen de entrenamiento regular, como sucede en deportes en equipo (estudio).

3. Condiciones ambientales

Múltiples modalidades efectivas de aclimatación al calor que incluyen recomendaciones de actividad, duración y temperatura (12).
Estudio: Resumen esquemático de los métodos para la aclimatación al calor y la aclimatación al calor, con ejemplos. Son posibles varias combinaciones de temperatura y humedad, así como el uso de calentadores portátiles y el uso de ropa adicional. Humedad relativa HR , consumo máximo de oxígeno VO 2max

La aclimatación al calor en calor seco (40°C) mejora el ejercicio en calor húmedo (Fox et al., 1967 ). Sin embargo, la aclimatación en calor húmedo evoca temperaturas de la piel más altas y adaptaciones circulatorias que en calor seco, aumentando potencialmente la humectación máxima de la piel y, por lo tanto, la tasa máxima de pérdida de calor por evaporación de la piel (Periard et al., 2015).

Entrenar en calor húmedo es una estrategia que se puede utilizar para la aclimatación al calor seco y así estresar aún más los sistemas cardiovascular y termorregulador. Pero si es posible se recomienda que los atletas se aclimaten predominantemente al entorno en el que competirán, por ejemplo un clima desértico o tropical.

Periodización a corto plazo

Periodización y planificación de Running y Trail Running
Periodización y planificación de Running y Trail Running

Las adaptaciones al calor decaen a diferentes velocidades y si las hicimos de forma apresurada, más rápido van a decaer (Pandolf et al., 1977 ).

Se comprobó más recientemente que la tasa de disminución de la aclimatación al calor es generalmente más lenta que su inducción, lo que permite el mantenimiento de la mayoría de los beneficios ( frecuencia cardíaca, temperatura central) durante 2 a 4 semanasFlouris et al., 2014 ).

Estos estudios se basan principalmente en marcadores fisiológicos de aclimatación al calor y aún queda por aclarar el deterioro del rendimiento deportivo competitivo en éstos ambientes.

Climatización individualizada al calor

El Trail Running requiere una aclimatación a ambientes calurosos húmedos y calurosos secos
El Trail Running requiere una aclimatación a ambientes calurosos húmedos y calurosos secos

Las respuestas de aclimatación individuales pueden diferir y deben monitorearse utilizando índices simples, como el aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca disminuida durante una serie de ejercicio submáximo estándar (Buchheit et al., 2013).

Otro marcador es el papel de la expansión del volumen plasmático (Tabla 1) en la aclimatación al calor, un aumento artificial del volumen plasmático no parece mejorar la función termorreguladora ( Watt et al., 2000 ), pero los cambios en el hematocrito (cantidad de sangre total compuesta de glóbulos rojos) durante una prueba de respuesta al calor después de la aclimatación a corto plazo se correlacionan con el rendimiento físico individual (Racinais et al., 2012 2014 ). Esto sugiere que los cambios en el volumen plasmático podrían representar un indicador valioso, incluso si probablemente no sea el mecanismo fisiológico que mejora la capacidad de ejercicio en el calor.

Tabla 1: Mejora fisiológicas y de rendimiento tras la adaptación al ambiente caluroso
Tabla 1: Mejora fisiológicas y de rendimiento tras la adaptación al ambiente caluroso (40°C)

Cada atleta debe entrenar con suficiente tiempo de antelación para poder evaluar su grado de deterioro a esa adaptación, sobre todo si el evento es muy importante, no todos somos iguales.

Consulte a su médico

La aclimatación al calor, combinada con la tensión del ejercicio, es increíblemente dura para el corazón y algunos otros órganos internos (como los riñones). Si tiene una afección cardíaca conocida, puede que no sea para usted comenzar rápidamente su aclimatación al calor subiendo la temperatura, por lo que siempre consulte a su médico de atención primaria antes de participar en este tipo de actividad.

Resumen de las principales recomendaciones para la aclimatación al calor

Tabla 2: Para facilitar la adaptación al ambiente caluroso
Tabla 2: Para facilitar la adaptación al ambiente caluroso

Por todos pestos estudios sabemos que existe una mejora del rendimiento físico en ambientes templados después del entrenamiento en el calor.

  • Los atletas que planean competir en condiciones ambientales calurosas deben aclimatarse al calor (es decir, entrenamiento repetido en el calor) para obtener adaptaciones biológicas que reduzcan la tensión fisiológica y mejoren la capacidad de ejercicio en el calor.
  • Las sesiones de aclimatación al calor deben durar al menos 60 min/día e inducir un aumento de la temperatura corporal y de la piel, así como estimular la sudoración.
  • Los atletas deben entrenar en el mismo entorno que el lugar de la competencia o, si no es posible, entrenar en interiores en una habitación a alta temperatura.
  • Las primeras adaptaciones se obtienen dentro de los primeros días, pero las principales adaptaciones fisiológicas no están completas hasta aproximadamente 1 semana. Idealmente, el período de aclimatación al calor debe durar 2 semanas para maximizar todos los beneficios.

Conclusiones

Según estudios y revisión sistemática cinco o más días de aclimatación al calor (en base a cada atleta de forma individual)  son suficientes para provocar adaptaciones en la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y la temperatura corporal (TC). Si extendemos esos días se mejora la adaptación de esa temperatura corporal. 

Por cada día de decaimiento o falta del entrenamiento en calor, se pierde ~ 2,5% de las adaptaciones en FC y Tc. 

Para la Tasa de Sudoración (TS), los períodos más largos de aclimatación al calor están relacionados con mejores adaptaciones, y las altas intensidades de exposición al calor parecen beneficiosas para estas adaptaciones, pero no para la TC. Gracias por llegar hasta aquí y leernos!!!

 

Artículos relacionados:

SODIO E HIPONATREMIA EN EL ULTRA TRAIL

ADAPTACIÓN AL CALOR EN CORREDORES

Supercompensación en el Trail Running

MODELO DE ENTRENAMIENTO PIRAMIDAL

10 ALIMENTOS QUE DETIENEN TU PROGRESO

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