Supercompensación en el Trail Running

Un corredor de resistencia y trail running debe conocer algunos términos para evitar el sobreentrenamiento y posibles lesiones deportivas.

Regulación del entrenamiento

La regulación del entrenamiento de resistencia suele basarse en la prescripción de la intensidad del ejercicio. La duración del ejercicio, es otra variable importante de la carga de entrenamiento, rara vez se prescribe mediante medidas individuales y, en su mayoría, se establece a partir de la experiencia de cada corredor o trail runner.

Dado que la duración específica del ejercicio para cualquier intensidad juega un papel importante con respecto a los diferentes tipos de factores estresantes celulares, el grado y tipo de fatiga, así como los efectos del entrenamiento, se necesitan conceptos que integren la prescripción tanto de la intensidad como de la duración.

Los objetivos principales en el entrenamiento de resistencia y para mejorar en el Trail Running son aumentar el consumo máximo oxígeno, la velocidad o potencia máxima sostenible (velocidad umbral), aumentar la economía y el tiempo hasta el agotamiento

También se sugiere que no solo la intensidad, sino también la duración de cualquier intensidad específica es crucial para inducir los efectos del entrenamiento o evitar la sobrecarga.

La Supercompensación

 

Cuando realizamos una sesión de entrenamiento físico, estamos aplicando un estímulo de tipo estresante al cuerpo, el cual rompe la homeostasis de éste. En respuesta a éste fenómeno el cuerpo genera un proceso de adaptación, la cual lo prepara para enfrentar de mejor manera los estímulos posteriores. A éste proceso se lo conoce como supercompensación.

 Hay una cierta duración para cada intensidad que conduce a un grado distinto de fatiga que realiza el ejercicio (4), prolonga los tiempos de recuperación y aumenta la «supercompensación» con un mayor rendimiento.

Reducir la duración a menos del 75% de la duración máxima no induce una fatiga clara, pero es compensada sin pérdida de rendimiento (3) y, en consecuencia, un tiempo de recuperación mucho más corto, si hay alguna «supercompensación».

Reducir la duración a menos del 60% de la duración máxima (2) no provoca fatiga y, por lo tanto, no aumenta el rendimiento, sino que estabiliza el nivel de rendimiento dado. Una duración inferior al 20% de la duración máxima es solo una estimulación funcional sugerida adecuada para la regeneración o recuperación  y mantiene el rendimiento del ejercicio.

Recuperación

Hegedüs menciona que los estímulos pueden ser considerados como cargas y la aplicación de los mismos produce verdaderos procesos de destrucción, desgaste o demolición. Es por esta causa que la aplicación de una carga debe ser seguida por la recuperación, el esfuerzo debe ser compensado con el descanso.

¿Por qué es importante el descanso o recuperación? Porque según Uthomskij (1927), el organismo por sí solo estará capacitado en dicho lapso para restituir todas las pérdidas sufridas a través del desgaste de su funcionamiento.

    Al aplicarse una carga de entrenamiento se produce una fase de disminución del rendimiento, seguida por una fase de recuperación y otra de supercompensación. Este fenómeno se observa claramente de manera teórica en la figura.

    Mantenimiento del nivel de rendimiento

Cuando las cargas de entrenamiento se aplican de manera muy espaciadas en el tiempo o de manera regular pero con intensidades moderadas el efecto que provocan es el mantenimiento del nivel de rendimiento pero no su mejora.

Disminución del nivel de rendimiento

Si las cargas se aplican sin una recuperación suficiente se produce una disminución del rendimiento.

Así como mejorar levemente conlleva mucho tiempo de entrenamiento correctamente planificado, el empeoramiento sustancial del nivel físico puede darse luego de una breve interrupción del entrenamiento. El retorno a los niveles iniciales de rendimiento suele llevar mucho más tiempo de lo que uno desearía.

En estas circunstancias estarías agudizando la fatiga y pudiendo desencadenar en un proceso de sobreentrenamiento.

¿Quieres llevar tu entrenamiento al siguiente nivel?

Comprender la supercompensación es necesario para planificar y ejecutar adecuadamente tus entrenamientos. Estructurar su entrenamiento en torno al efecto de supercompensación te permitirá evitar llegar a un punto muerto en el rendimiento.

En un buen programa de entrenamiento, la supercompensación sirve como un punto de control en su ciclo de entrenamiento que puede intentar alcanzar a medida que avanza en el programa. 

Tu cuerpo no debería supercompensarse después de cada sesión de entrenamiento, pero si estás entrenando y recuperándote correctamente, deberías notar los efectos positivos de la supercompensación aproximadamente cada dos o tres semanas.

Para esto ponte en contacto con nosotros y que llevaremos de forma adecuada tu preparación deportiva en el objetivo que elijas. 

Conclusión

Dependiendo del objetivo de un período de entrenamiento específico, se deben estructurar tipos específicos de microciclos que combinen el tipo de ejercicio, la intensidad y la duración. Así podremos evitar la fatiga y garantizar la capacidad de repartir grandes volúmenes de ejercicio de forma periódica.

Es crucial que el corredor conozca sus zonas de entrenamiento, tanto en zonas bajas o regenerativas, como en zona 4 , con claro nivel de fatiga para comprender cada ciclo de entrenamiento.

Para éste punto las  escalas de índices de esfuerzo percibido (RPE) pueden ser útiles para identificar estos marcadores de referencia de forma individual diaria.

Un atleta debe prestar especial atención a todo, principalmente a los volúmenes que realiza, a largo plazo puede ser perjudicial o tener alguna fractura por estrés o artrosis, así como alteraciones en el suministro de energía o fluidos. ( Noakes, 2000 ; Cymet y Sinkov, 2006 ; Krampla et al., 2008 ; Weber, 2009 ; Warden et al., 2014 ).

A pesar de esos límites, este concepto brinda un marco teórico sólido que permite optimizar tanto la intensidad como la duración de todo el espectro de carga de entrenamiento de resistencia por primera vez. Puede ayudar a mejorar el entrenamiento físico para un rendimiento de alto nivel aunque ya esté cerca de los límites de tolerancia del cuerpo humano.

937 thoughts on “Supercompensación en el Trail Running

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